Electrostatic discharges (ESD) can damage a sensitive electronic component, resulting in failures, reduced reliability and increased rework costs, or latent component failures of equipment in the field.ESD can also cause interference with the operation of electronic systems. Static electricity can build up high level voltage in operating environments. Levels above 10 000 Volts are not uncommon, and levels over 30 000 Volts have been recorded. A simple action such as a person getting up from a chair can cause a rise in the body voltage (HBM) up to 10 kV.
Anti-static garments or anti-static clothing is required to prevent damage to electrical components or to prevent fires and explosions when working with flammable liquids and gases.One of the ways to bond or electrically connect personnel to ground is the use of an ESD (Electrostatic Sensitive Device) garment. ESD garments have conductive threads in them, creating a wearable version of a faraday cage. ESD garments attempt to shield ESD sensitive devices from harmful static charges from clothing such as wool, silk, and synthetic fabrics on people working with them. For these garments to work properly, they must also be connected to ground with a strap. Most ESD garments are not conductive enough to provide personal grounding so antistatic foot straps and antistatic wrist straps are also worn. ESD garments are considered an optional method to control ESD.
RoHS is Restriction of Hazardous Substance Directive adopted by European Union in February 2003. It finally took effect in the European Union on 1 July 2006.RoHS restricts the use of the following substances in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipments: